Women, exercise and anemia
Iron deficiency is a common problem for women athletes. Studies have routinely found that athletes, especially female athletes, are often iron-deficient or anemic. Iron is essential for athletic performance. One of its major functions is to carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from all the cells in your body. The brain also relies on oxygen transport and without enough iron you will find it hard to concentrate and feel tired and irritable. Iron is also needed to maintain a healthy immune system. If you don't have enough iron you may be prone to more frequent infections.
A combination of the following factors place athletes at risk of iron deficiency:
- Inadequate supply of dietary iron. Athletes who avoid red meat have difficulty meeting the body's iron needs.
- Increased demands for iron. Hard training stimulates an increase in red blood cell and blood vessel production, and increases the demand for iron. (Iron turnover is highest for endurance athletes training at high intensity).
- High iron loss. Blood loss through injury, or menstruation. In endurance athletes, ‘foot strike’ damage to red blood cells in the feet due to running on hard surfaces with poor quality shoes leads to iron loss. Finally, because iron is lost in sweat, heavy sweating leads to increased risk of deficiency.
The symptoms of iron deficiency include loss of endurance, chronic fatigue, high exercise heart rate, low power, frequent injury, recurring illness, and loss of interest in exercise and irritability. Other symptoms include poor appetite, and increased incidence and duration of colds and infections. Many of these symptoms are also common to over-training, so misdiagnosis is common.
If your physician confirms iron deficiency, she will recommend an increase in your dietary iron intake. If your deficiency is severe, you may need supplements. Never use iron supplements unless under the supervision of your doctor, as too much iron can cause irreversible damage and a higher risk of cancer and heart disease.
Good Sources of Iron
The RDA for women and teenagers is 15 milligrams per day. Men should consume 10 mg. Endurance athletes may need slightly more. You can get iron in both animal and plant foods, but the iron in animal sources has an absorption rate of about 15 percent, compared to about 5 percent for plants. So the more effective way to increase iron status is by eating animal products such as lean red meat, poultry or fish or liver. You can also increase the amount of iron in foods you eat by cooking with a cast iron skillet (especially if cooking acidic foods).
Iron absorption from any foods, whether plant or animal, is decreased if they are accompanied at meals by caffeine. Calcium and zinc also reduce the ability of the body to absorb iron. However adding fruit (citrus fruit in particular), to meals enhances iron absorption. The best sources of iron in the diet include: Lean red meat, iron-fortified breakfast cereal, nuts and legumes, (combined these with foods high in vitamin C).